Training program on
“Protection of Electrical Power System & Protective Relaying”


  • Need of Protection,
  • Philosophy,
  • HT/EHT Protection,
  • Substation protection,
  • Protection Zones,
  • Need of Relaying, Different types,
  • Relaying Protection,
  • Fault detection,
  • Basics of Relay coordination,
  • Mitigation of effects of Electrical failure.


Enhance the knowledge of basic Electrical Power System Protection Techniques.
  • Further understanding of protective devices
  • Learn to calculate the basic fault currents flowing in any part of the Electrical system
  • Electrical system protection against faults and overvoltage’s

Sub Contents:

  1. Power System Faults
    • Different types of faults
    • Incidence of faults on power system equipment
    • Effects of power system faults
    • Magnitude of fault current, short circuit calculations- Basics
    • Detection of faults; Clearance of faults
    • Requirements of protective relaying systems
  2. Short Circuit Theory (Basics)
    • Effects of short circuit; Fault current sources
    • Calculations for Single and three Phase System.
    • Percentage Impedence
    • Fault current characteristics
  3. Fault Studies
    • Equipment ratings
    • Purposes of fault calculations
    • Types of faults
    • Fault calculations
  4. Components of Power System Protection Schemes
    • Fault detecting relays
    • Tripping relays and other auxiliary relays
    • Circuit breakers - bulk oil, air-blast, vacuum, SF6
    • Current Transformers
    • Voltage Transformers
    • Ground Transformers
    • The transition from electro-mechanical relays to electronic and digital microprocessor-based relays
    • The application of programmable logic controllers
    • Modern microprocessor-based relays: review of types available
  5. Current Transformers (CTs) & Voltage Transformers (VTs)
    • Various types of CTs, VTs & CVTs
    • Theory and characteristics of CTs
    • Application requirements of CTs for protective relaying
    • Accuracy classifications
    • Future trends in CT design
    • Testing of CTs and VTs
  6. Co-ordination of Electrical Protection Systems (Basics)
    • Fuse to fuse; Circuit breaker to fuse
    • Fuse to circuit breaker
    • Back up protection
    • Limitation of fault current
    • Selective zones of protection
    • Types of bus protection schemes & Testing of bus protection schemes
    • Basic concept of differential protection
    • Application to various bus configurations
  7. Feeder Over current Protection
    • Protective relaying requirements for loop and radial systems
    • Elements of feeder protection schemes
    • High set, low set, and inverse -timed elements
    • Co-ordination with other devices and fuses
    • Auto-reclosing of feeder circuit breakers
    • Various types of overcurrent relays
    • Electromechanical, electronic & digital relays
    • Relay setting criteria
    • Testing of overcurrent protection schemes
  8. Transformer Protection
    • Over current and ground-fault protection
    • Application of differential protection to transformers
    • Gas relays, pressure and gas accumulation
    • Winding temperature and oil temperature devices
    • Testing of transformer protection schemes
    • Modern microprocessor-based multi-function relays - available functions, application and testing

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