5 Day`s Training Program on
Switchyard/Substation Equipments
Fundamentals, Operation, Testing, Maintenance, Protection and
Monitoring Techniques

Training Program Description:

HV/LV Switch yards are very important interjections between power generation & transmission and transmission & electrical distribution. Hence, they shall be operated & maintained properly and protected from all possible abnormalities to ensure uninterrupted power supply. However, in critically loaded power system, proper and adequate maintenance is difficult.

With the use of condition monitoring technique, optimization of maintenance is now possible. Moreover, the use of conditional monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be taken to avoid the consequences of failure, before the failure occurs.

The participants will also learn about various diagnostic Testing methods like: Offline & Online testing and monitoring techniques, high level test like Motor Current and Torque Signature, Acoustic Emission, Surge Testing (IEEE522), Tan Delta & Capacitance Measurement, Partial Discharge Measurement, Dielectric Response Analysis. The latest VLF (Very Low Frequency) HIPOT will be discussed in comparison to DC HIPOT and AC HIPOT Testing as per IEEE 433.

Objective and Learning Outcomes:

The participants will learn about various operating procedures, systematic maintenance practices and condition monitoring techniques of HV/LV Switchyard equipment.

Upon Completion of this course the participant will be able to:

  • Conduct safe switchyard operation
  • Understand principles of systematic maintenance of various switchyard equipment
  • Understand various aspects of Switchyard Maintenance
  • Learn various condition monitoring techniques
  • Prepare switchyard Operating Procedures
  • Understand the various testing methods
  • Prepare Inspection, Testing, Maintenance and Condition Monitoring Schedule
  • Contribute to the system reliability improvement

Who Should Attend?

All practicing Engineers, DET, GET, O&M professionals; others who willing to get knowledge regarding substation equipments & their maintenance.

Contents of the 5 Days Training Program:

Main Program Outline:

Reviewing of Basics
  1. Basic principles of Switchyard Design
  2. Layout and operating principles
  3. Familiarization of switchyard equipment
Importance of electrical safety in HV/LV Sub-station
  1. Concept of charge
  2. potential, its type and its associated hazard
  3. Shock & fire due to undesired flow of potential
Maintenance and Testing Of Earthing System
  1. Lightning – its features
  2. Protection against lightning
  3. Earthing - its importance, types, basics Testing & maintenance of earthing
Operation, maintenance, Testing, Protection and Condition Monitoring of various Switchyard Equipments:
  1. Power Transformer
  2. Instrument transformer (CT/PT)
  3. Bushing
  4. Circuit-Breaker
  5. Lighting Arrestor
  6. Overhead Lines, Towers & structures
  7. Cables
  8. Relay and Relaying
  9. Control Panel
  10. Isolators
  11. Automation of Substation/ Switchyard Operations: PLC/SCADA
  12. Advances in Switchyard Operation
  13. Battery and Battery Charging System

Sub contents:

  1. Power System Faults
    • Power System Faults
    • Incidence of faults on power system equipment
    • Effects of power system faults
    • Magnitude of fault current, short circuit calculations- Basics
    • Detection of faults; Clearance of faults
    • Requirements of protective relaying systems
  2. Short Circuit Theory (Basics)
    • Effects of short circuit; Fault current sources
    • Calculations for Single and three Phase System.
    • Percentage Impedance
    • Fault current characteristics
  3. Fault Studies
    • Equipment ratings
    • Purposes of fault calculations
    • Types of faults
    • Fault calculations
  4. Components of Power System Protection Schemes
    • Fault detecting relays
    • Tripping relays and other auxiliary relays
  5. Current Transformers (CTs) & Voltage Transformers (VTs)
    • Various types of CTs, VTs & CVTs
    • Theory and characteristics of CTs
    • Application requirements of CTs for protective relaying
    • Accuracy classifications
    • Future trends in CT design
    • Testing of CTs and VTs
  6. Co-ordination of Electrical Protection Systems – Relay Coordination System, Basics)
    • Fuse to fuse; Circuit breaker to fuse
    • Fuse to circuit breaker
    • Back up protection
    • Limitation of fault current
    • Selective zones of protection
    • Types of bus protection schemes & Testing of bus protection schemes
    • Basic concept of differential protection
    • Application to various bus configurations
  7. Feeder Over current Protection
    • Protective relaying requirements for loop and radial systems
    • Elements of feeder protection schemes
    • High set, low set, and inverse -timed elements
    • Co-ordination with other devices and fuses
    • Auto-reclosing of feeder circuit breakers
    • Various types of over current relays
    • Electromechanical, electronic & digital relays
    • Relay setting criteria
    • Testing of over current protection schemes
  8. Transformer Protection
    • Over current and ground-fault protection
    • Application of differential protection to transformers
    • Gas relays, pressure and gas accumulation
    • Winding temperature and oil temperature devices
    • Testing of transformer protection schemes
    • Modern microprocessor-based multi-function relays - available functions, application and testing
Testing & Advanced Condition Monitoring Techniques:
  1. Power Cable:
    • Commissioning testing / acceptance tests at site
    • Diagnostic testing
    1. Insulation resistance test
    2. Polarization Index
    3. Tan delta and capacitance measurement
    4. Partial discharge Measurement
    5. Low frequency testing; HIPOT Testing
  2. Transformers
    • Fundamentals of transformers
    • Acceptance tests
    • various diagnostic testing online and offline
    • Online and offline testing and Condition based monitoring
  3. Advanced CBM
    • Online testing for condition monitoring, methods and Advantages.
    • Offline testing of electrical Equipments
    • Interpretation of the test Results
  4. Circuit Breaker, Isolator, Instrument Transformer (CT or PT), Relay, Control Panels
  5. Various other CBM Techniques (Informative)
    • Current Signature Analysis
    • Thermography
    • Vibration Analysis
    • eddy Current & Magnetic Particle
    • Case Studies & Discussion
  6. Earthing

    • Distinction between earthing and grounding
    • Soil resistivity, influencing factors, soil treatment
    • Resistance to earth of different electrodes
    • Measurement of grid resistance
    • Electrode selection and sizing: case study
    • Human element
    • Step and touch potentials
    • Case study: Ground mat design procedures
    • Case study: Earthing in LV and MV systems
    • Significance of bonding conductor


  • Types of grounding
  • Effectively grounded system
  • Advantages and disadvantages of ungrounded system
  • Ground fault detection in ungrounded system
  • Advantages and disadvantages of solidly grounded system
  • Advantages and disadvantages of resistance grounded system
  • Resonant grounding – applications and difficulties
  • Case study : Application of zigzag and open delta for grounding
  • Case study : Neutral grounding of generators – core damage limitation - correct and incorrect approaches
  • Correct LA, Cable and PT selection for different grounding applications
  • Case study : Problems in ground fault relaying Substation grounding/Earthing – Earth mesh, grounding rods, measurements, maintenance and corrective actions
Who can attend:
Electrical / Manager / Supervisor, Application Engineer, Condition Monitoring Engineer, Design Engineer, Maintenance Engineer /Manager/Supervisor/Reliability Engineer/Manager/ Supervisor

Prerequisite: Basic knowledge of Electrical Equipments and experience in maintenance will be helpful.

Delivery Methodology:
  • Introduction and Objective Setting
  • Pre and Post Test,
  • Knowledge Presentations,
  • Hands on (High Voltage testing, partial Discharge, Insulation etc)
  • Case Study,
  • Feedback and Assessment

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